Database Management Basics

Database management is a system of managing information that a company needs to run its business operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to applications and users and then modifying it if necessary and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing the data from becoming corrupted by unexpected failure. It is an integral part of the overall infrastructure of a company that supports decision making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were created in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) that allowed the storage and retrieve large amounts data for a variety of purposes, ranging from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database consists of tables that are organized according to a particular pattern, for example, one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, known as attributes, that contain information about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, which were developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most popular database type today. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also easier to update data since it doesn’t require changing certain sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support different types of databases by offering different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability, and other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a combination of various external views (based on the various data models) and may include virtual tables that are created from generic data to improve performance.

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